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In Saarland , the party became a significant force for the first time in a western state, winning In Saxony and Brandenburg , the party's vote declined slightly while it remained the second largest political force in both states. The electoral collapse of the Social Democratic Party in the federal election on 27 September gave The Left an unprecedented opportunity.

The party's vote surged to It remains the second largest opposition party.

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Ahead of the presidential election , Social Democrats and Greens invited the Left to vote for their candidate, Joachim Gauck. They proposed the election of the civil rights activist and former Federal Commissioner for the Stasi Records as a possibility for the Left to leave their communist past behind them and show unconditional support for democracy. But after Jochimsen had withdrawn, most Left electoral delegates abstained. The party was isolated ahead of the presidential election , as the government invited the SPD and Greens, but not Die Linke, to agree on an all-party consensus candidate for President.

Die Linke again refused to support him. In the federal election , The Left received 8. In the European parliament elections , The Left received 7. Bodo Ramelow was elected Minister-President by the Landtag , becoming the first member of the party to serve in the role in any German state.

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In the federal election , The Left made small gains, but nonetheless fell to fifth place due to the re-entry of the FDP to the Bundestag in fourth place, and the ascension of AfD to third place. The Left aims for democratic socialism in order to overcome capitalism.

As a platform for left politics in the wake of globalization , The Left includes many different factions, ranging from communists to social democrats. The official program of the party was decided upon by an overwhelming majority at the party conference in October in Erfurt, Thuringia. The party's fiscal policies are based on Keynesian economics , originating from the s when governments responded to the Great Depression. The central bank and government should collaborate with expansionary fiscal and monetary policies in order to ameliorate business cycles , to support economic growth, and to reduce unemployment.

Wage rises in the private sector should be determined through the productivity growth, the target inflation rate of the European Central Bank , and master contracts. The party aims at increasing government spending in the areas of public investments, education, research and development, culture, and infrastructure, as well as increasing taxes for large corporations. It calls for increases in inheritance tax rates and the reinstatement of the individual "net worth" tax. The Left aims at a linear income tax progression, which would reduce the tax burden for lower incomes, while raising the middle- and top-income tax rates.

The combating of tax loopholes is a perennial issue, as The Left believes that they primarily benefit people with high incomes. The financial markets should be subject to heavier government regulation, with the goal, among others, to reduce the speculation of bonds and derivatives. The party wants to strengthen anti-trust laws and empower cooperatives to decentralise the economy.

Further economic reforms shall include solidarity and more self-determination for workers, a ban on gas and oil fracking , the rejection of privatization and the introduction of a federal minimum wage , [39] and more generally the overthrow of property and power structures in which, citing Karl Marx 's aphorism, "man is a debased, enslaved, abandoned, despicable essence". Concerning foreign policy, The Left calls for international disarmament , while ruling out any form of involvement of the Bundeswehr outside of Germany.

The party calls for a replacement of NATO with a collective security system including Russia as a member country. German foreign policy should be strictly confined to the goals of civil diplomacy and cooperation, instead of confrontation. The Left supports further debt cancellations for developing countries and increases in development aid, in collaboration with the United Nations , World Trade Organization , World Bank , and diverse bilateral treaties among countries. The party supports reform of the United Nations as long as it is aimed at a fair balance between developed and developing countries.

The Left would have all American military bases within Germany, and if possible in the European Union , enacted within a binding treaty, dissolved. The Left welcomes the European process of integration, while opposing what it believes to be neoliberal policies in the European Union.


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The party strives for the democratisation of the EU institutions and a stronger role of the United Nations in international politics. The party has a mixed stance towards the recent Ukrainian crisis. Gregor Gysi has described Russia as "state capitalist", and the party has called the Russian annexation of Crimea and Russian invasion of eastern Ukraine "illegal". However, Gysi has noted that "older" elements of the party have a strong penchant for Russia and the Soviet Union.

The Left Party's position as the successor party of the SED of the former German Democratic Republic and its positions have often led to controversy, [45] and to the party being observed by the Verfassungsschutz authorities. In , Gabi Zimmer , the head of the Left Party's predecessor PDS at the time, officially recognized the injustice of building the Berlin Wall in , but she did not apologize on behalf of the Party.

The Left Party, including one third of its members of parliament, [47] and some of its caucuses remain under observation by the BfV, listed in the annual Verfassungsschutzbericht under the heading "left-extremist tendencies and suspected cases". The report cites as evidence of the party's "extremism" Lothar Bisky 's June statement that democratic socialism remains the party's goal: "We also still discuss the change of property and power relations [ We question the system.

In addition, the report cites "openly extremist groupings" within the party, notably the Marxist—Leninist Communist Platform , which in Sahra Wagenknecht has a representative on the member Left Party executive. However, the small "Communist Platform"—a hardline communist minority faction within the party—is under observation in three eastern states.

In January , it became known that more than one third of the party's MPs were observed by the federal Verfassungsschutz due to suspected extremist views. On 3 October , during a commemoration ceremony [57] in the Saxon Parliament in memory of the German reunification and the fall of the German Democratic Republic, all members of The Left walked out in protest.

In Hesse, state SPD leader Andrea Ypsilanti sought to form a minority government with the Greens, which would have required the support of The Left's new parliamentary group despite a campaign promise not to cooperate with The Left.

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This would have been the first time that The Left formed any alliance with a government in a western state. The move was controversial in the SPD.


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Some of the party's representatives in parliament rejected cooperation with a party they considered extremist. After months of debate, the proposed government was scheduled to be brought to a vote in the Hessian Landtag on 4 November On the eve of the vote, four SPD deputies broke with party discipline and declared they would vote against Ypsilanti, effectively blocking an SPD-led government. The Left contested an election in Bavaria for the first time in the September Bavaria state election.

It garnered 4.

In October the Left Party nominated Tatort actor and activist Peter Sodann as their candidate for the presidential election. The Left Party has a number of internal caucuses , most often referred to as platforms or forums. A lawsuit by Germany's far-right AfD challenging scrutiny by Thuringia state authorities has been dismissed by the region's constitutional court.

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In her first trip outside of Europe as party leader, Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer defended the Iran nuclear deal at a security conference in Israel. She also plans to meet with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu for talks. From questions of party leadership to the future of Chancellor Angela Merkel's government, much is at stake at the CDU conference. DW looks at the issues that could signal the party's future direction.

The chancellor's embattled heir apparent Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer gave a rousing speech that unified a party riddled with dissent. But questions persist about whether she can lead the CDU into the next elections. A day and a half of policy and leadership debates resulted in Germany's largest party plotting out a united path into the post-Merkel era.

But it remains unclear who it will choose to run for the chancellorship. More info OK. Wrong language? Change it here DW. This question has been asked before and already has an answer. If those answers do not fully address your question, please ask a new question. In the US, most doctorates in science and engineering are also a PhD even though our degrees aren't in philosophy. While other degrees exist, they are less common.

I would suggest translating your degree as a PhD since most international audiences will understand that you mean an academic doctorate. That being said, I was able to get what Dr.

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Most people have the ability to search the internet when they are confused. I would say that for business cards and websites you don't need to translate your degree title. Many people will already know what it means German titles are unusual, but reasonably well known , and most will be able to basically figure it out, since it's got "Dr.

If you are feeling particularly concerned about misunderstanding, you can put a footnote to the effect of "German doctorate similar to a Ph. D," but it's probably better to let the other person look up a translation. I translate my own Dr. Since it says Dr.